drupal 8

Similar to Drupal 7, Drupal 8 also gives the customization using theme template, If you want to place a block using programmatically you have following options : 

1) Using the default Drupal method using THEME_preprocess_page,write this function in your mytheme.theme file, See the example below :

function THEME_preprocess_page(&$variables) {

// Load block
$block = \Drupal\block\Entity\Block::load('your_block_machine_name');
$variables['block_view'] = \Drupal::entityTypeManager()
//Get block title
$block_title = \Drupal\block\Entity\Block::load('main_menu')->label();

 $variables['title_of_block'] = $block_title;

and put "block_view" & "title_of_block" as this format in twig template 

block title : {{title_of_block}}

block view : {{block_view}}

2) You can also try the easiest way using the Twig Blocks Module to make the variable directly, Just on the module and put the machine name like below:



{{ render_block('machine_name_of_your_block') }}



3) You can also try this module Twig Tweak, this also use to render views Blocks in theme 



{{ drupal_block('machine_name_of_your_block','block_1') }} 



Hope this helps you,